This section I will explain again anything that has not been understood clearly by the majority in the class or needs further explanations.  I will add to this after each lesson.


Read Only Memory.  Non volatile memory (that can retrieve stored information even after the computer has been switched off).
Memory that is hard-wired
ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again

Random Access Memory
Fast temporary volatile type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored.
Here are some examples of what’s stored in RAM:

  • the operating system
  • applications
  • the graphical user interface (GUI)

If a computer loses power, all data stored in its RAM is lost.

Generic Software
General-purpose software, such as word processors and spreadsheets.

Bespoke Software
Written specially for the end user.  100% customised.

Specialist Software
Sold for specific uses, eg managing the accounts of a large organisation.

Customised Software
Existing software which is then parts of it “customised” to fit the end users needs.  Often cheaper the Bespoke software.

Wired (cables) methods of connecting peripheral devices (hardware) to a computer

1. USB
2. Firewire
3. Ethernet
4.  Audio / Auxiliary cable
5. Thunderbolt
6.  Lightning
7.  Serial (PS/2, Mini-DIN) 8. Parallel
9.  VGA
10. HDMI
11. Displayport
12. DVI
13. eSATA